Uganda's population is made up of a complex and diverse range of tribes. Lake Kyoga forms the northern boundary for the Bantu-speaking peoples, who dominate much of east, central and southern Africa. In Uganda they include the Buganda and several other tribes. In the north live the Lango and the Acholi, who speak Nilotic languages. To the east are the Teso and Karamojong, who are related to the Maasai and who also speak Nilotic languages.
Each tribe has its musical history; songs are passed down from generation to generation. Ndigindi (lyre), entongoli (harp), amadinda (xylophone) and lukeme (thumb piano) are commonly played instruments. An Acholi, Okot p'Bitek, is one of Uganda's most famous writers of folklore, strical poems and songs. His book Song of Lawino (1966) describes the stories told in Acholi songs.
Three quarters of the population is Christian, the remaining follow Islam or other religions.
Uganda currently has a population of 25.8 million (UN, 2003). Yet, taking into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected. The population growth rate is about 2.94% with a birth rate of 47.15 births/1,000 population and a death rate of 17.53 deaths/1,000 population.
The net migration rate is about –0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population according to the UNHCR, by the end of 2001, Uganda was host to 178,815 refugees from a number of neighboring countries, including: Sudan 155,996, Rwanda 14,375, and Democratic Republic of the Congo 7,459.
The sex ratio at birth is approximately 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years 1.01 male(s)/female; 15-64 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over 0.89 male(s)/female.
Infant mortality rate is at 89.35 deaths/1,000 live births and life expectancy at birth is: total population; 43.81 years, female; 44.67 years; male 42.97 years. It's estimated that one Uganda woman bears 6.8 children. However, about 6.2% of the Ugandan population is carrying the HIV/AIDS virus. So about 1.1 million people are infected with HIV and about 110,000 people die of AIDS every year.
Age structure : 0- 14 years: 50.9% (male 6,314,371; female 6,265,681) 15-64 years: 47% (male 5,803,430; female 5,789,713) 65 years and over: 2.1% (male 247,798; female 278,080).
Major languages: English (official), Swahili, Ganda, and various Bantu languages. The monetary unit is the Uganda shilling, which equals 100 cents. Uganda 's main exports are: coffee, fish and fish products, tea, tobacco, cotton, corn, beans, and sesame. The average annual income is US $260 (World Bank, 2001).